RoundUp and Cancer - Scientific Studies

I have never used RoundUp because I prefer organic gardening but after seeing an article in the news about it being linked to cancer I went searching for scientific studies on the subject. This is one of the big reasons why I got into gardening, to save money on organic produce. I posted some of the study abstracts with the sources below. Unfortunately, people spray this stuff all over their yard where their kids and pets play without knowing that it causes cancer.

Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of glyphosate and Roundup in human-derived buccal epithelial cells

Glyphosate (G) is the largest selling herbicide worldwide; the most common formulations (Roundup, R) contain polyoxyethyleneamine as main surfactant. Recent findings indicate that G exposure may cause DNA damage and cancer in humans. Aim of this investigation was to study the cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of G and R (UltraMax) in a buccal epithelial cell line (TR146), as workers are exposed via inhalation to the herbicide. R induced acute cytotoxic effects at concentrations >40 mg/l after 20 min, which were due to membrane damage and impairment of mitochondrial functions. With G, increased release of extracellular lactate dehydrogenase indicative for membrane damage was observed at doses >80 mg/l. Both G and R induced DNA migration in single-cell gel electrophoresis assays at doses >20 mg/l. Furthermore, an increase of nuclear aberrations that reflect DNA damage was observed. The frequencies of micronuclei and nuclear buds were elevated after 20-min exposure to 10–20 mg/l, while nucleoplasmatic bridges were only enhanced by R at the highest dose (20 mg/l). R was under all conditions more active than its active principle (G). Comparisons with results of earlier studies with lymphocytes and cells from internal organs indicate that epithelial cells are more susceptible to the cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of the herbicide and its formulation. Since we found genotoxic effects after short exposure to concentrations that correspond to a 450-fold dilution of spraying used in agriculture, our findings indicate that inhalation may cause DNA damage in exposed individuals.

Roundup disrupts male reproductive functions by triggering calcium-mediated cell death in rat testis and Sertoli cells.

Glyphosate is the primary active constituent of the commercial pesticide Roundup. The present results show that acute Roundup exposure at low doses (36 ppm, 0.036 g/L) for 30 min induces oxidative stress and activates multiple stress-response pathways leading to Sertoli cell death in prepubertal rat testis. The pesticide increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by opening L-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels as well as endoplasmic reticulum IP3 and ryanodine receptors, leading to Ca(2+) overload within the cells, which set off oxidative stress and necrotic cell death. Similarly, 30 min incubation of testis with glyphosate alone (36 ppm) also increased (45)Ca(2+) uptake. These events were prevented by the antioxidants Trolox and ascorbic acid. Activated protein kinase C, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases such as ERK1/2 and p38MAPK play a role in eliciting Ca(2+) influx and cell death. Roundup decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and increased the amounts of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyls. Also, exposure to glyphosate-Roundup stimulated the activity of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, supporting downregulated GSH levels. Glyphosate has been described as an endocrine disruptor affecting the male reproductive system; however, the molecular basis of its toxicity remains to be clarified. We propose that Roundup toxicity, implicated in Ca(2+) overload, cell signaling misregulation, stress response of the endoplasmic reticulum, and/or depleted antioxidant defenses, could contribute to Sertoli cell disruption in spermatogenesis that could have an impact on male fertility.

32P‐postlabeling detection of DNA adducts in mice treated with the herbicide roundup

Roundup is a postemergence herbicide acting on the synthesis of amino acids and other important endogenous chemicals in plants. Roundup is commonly used in agriculture, forestry, and nurseries for the control or destruction of most herbaceous plants. The present study shows that Roundup is able to induce a dose‐dependent formation of DNA adducts in the kidneys and liver of mice. The levels of Roundup‐related DNA adducts observed in mouse kidneys and liver at the highest dose of herbicide tested (600 mg/kg) were 3.0 ± 0.1 (SE) and 1.7 ± 0.1 (SE) adducts/108 nucleotides, respectively. The Roundup DNA adducts were not related to the active ingredient, the isopropylammonium salt of glyphosate, but to another, unknown component of the herbicide mixture. Additional experiments are needed to identify the chemical specie(s) of Roundup mixture involved in DNA adduct formation. Findings of this study may help to protect agricultural workers from health hazards and provide a basis for risk assessment. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 31:55–59, 1998. © 1998 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.<55::AID-EM8>3.0.CO;2-A

The oral and intratracheal toxicities of ROUNDUP and its components to rats.

The toxicities of ROUNDUP and its component chemicals, glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) and polyoxyethyleneamine (POEA), were determined at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 24 h following administration to rats. The intratracheal administration of glyphosate (0.2 g/kg), POEA (0.1 g/kg), a mixture of glyphosate (0.2 g/kg) + POEA (0.1 g/kg), or ROUNDUP (containing 0.2 g/kg glyphosate and 0.1 g/kg POEA) elicited immediate respiratory effects which were more severe and which lasted longer in the groups receiving the POEA-containing preparations than in the glyphosate alone group. By 1 h, all test preparations had caused deaths, but more occurred from the POEA-containing preparations than from glyphosate. The po administration of POEA (1 g/kg), the mixture of glyphosate (2 g/kg) +POEA (1 g/kg), or ROUNDUP (containing 2 g/kg glyphosate and 1 g/kg POEA) produced diarrhea and blood-stained weeping from noses. Death was only seen from POEA at 24 h. Glyphosate (2 g/kg po) produced transient diarrhea without nose bleeds; POEA caused diarrhea at 1 h; and the mixture of POEA + glyphosate produced diarrhea later that increased in severity with time. Bloody nose secretions were seen only with the preparations that contained POEA. No deaths, respiratory effects or bloody nose secretions occurred in controls given saline. Both POEA and glyphosate caused lung hemorrhages and lung epithelial cell damage with po or intratracheal exposures. These results indicate POEA and preparations that contained POEA were more toxic than glyphosate.

Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases IV: cancer and related pathologies

Glyphosate is the active ingredient in the pervasive herbicide, Roundup, and its usage,particularly in the United States, has increased dramatically in the last two decades, in step withthe widespread adoption of Roundup®-Ready core crops. The World Health Organizationrecently labelled glyphosate as “probably carcinogenic.” In this paper, we review the researchliterature, with the goal of evaluating the carcinogenic potential of glyphosate. Glyphosate has alarge number of tumorigenic effects on biological systems, including direct damage to DNA insensitive cells, disruption of glycine homeostasis, succinate dehydrogenase inhibition, chelationof manganese, modification to more carcinogenic molecules such as N-nitrosoglyphosate andglyoxylate, disruption of fructose metabolism, etc. Epidemiological evidence supports strongtemporal correlations between glyphosate usage on crops and a multitude of cancers that arereaching epidemic proportions, including breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer,thyroid cancer, liver cancer, bladder cancer and myeloid leukaemia. Here, we support thesecorrelations through an examination of Monsanto’s early studies on glyphosate, and explain howthe biological effects of glyphosate could induce each of these cancers. We believe that theavailable evidence warrants a reconsideration of the risk/benefit trade-off with respect toglyphosate usage to control weeds, and we advocate much stricter regulation of glyphosate.

Pesticide Roundup Provokes Cell Division Dysfunction at the Level of CDK1/Cyclin B Activation

To assess human health risk from environmental chemicals, we have studied the effect on cell cycle regulation of the widely used glyphosate-containing pesticide Roundup. As a model system we have used sea urchin embryonic first divisions following fertilization, which are appropriate for the study of universal cell cycle regulation without interference with transcription. We show that 0.8% Roundup (containing 8 mM glyphosate) induces a delay in the kinetic of the first cell cleavage of sea urchin embryos. The delay is dependent on the concentration of Roundup. The delay in the cell cycle could be induced using increasing glyphosate concentrations (1−10 mM) in the presence of a subthreshold concentration of Roundup 0.2%, while glyphosate alone was ineffective, thus indicating synergy between glyphosate and Roundup formulation products. The effect of Roundup was not lethal and involved a delay in entry into M-phase of the cell cycle, as judged cytologically. Since CDK1/cyclin B regulates universally the M-phase of the cell cycle, we analyzed CDK1/cyclin B activation during the first division of early development. Roundup delayed the activation of CDK1/cyclin B in vivo. Roundup inhibited also the global protein synthetic rate without preventing the accumulation of cyclin B. In summary, Roundup affects cell cycle regulation by delaying activation of the CDK1/cyclin B complex, by synergic effect of glyphosate and formulation products. Considering the universality among species of the CDK1/cyclin B regulator, our results question the safety of glyphosate and Roundup on human health.